CONCISE HISTOLOGY, by Leslie P. Gartner, PhD and James L. Hiatt, PhD, thoroughly reviews all the Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gartner, Leslie P., Color atlas and text of histology / Leslie P. Gartner, James Hiatt. — 6th ed. p. ; cm. Read Textbook of Histology PDF Ebook by Leslie P. sperenprinivra.mlhed by Elsevier, ePUB/PDF , sperenprinivra.ml .PDF).
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4th edition. Elsevier, p. Thoroughly updated to reflect all of the latest concepts and advances in the field, this concise, extensively. 1) Color Textbook of Histology [Paperback]. Leslie P. Gartner PhD, James L. Hiatt . kr. 2) Writing for Science author: Heather Silyn-Roberts 50 kr. Textbook of Histology. 4th edition, by Leslie P. Gartner. Thoroughly updated to reflect all of the latest concepts and advances in the field, this concise, extensively.
They are usually inactive, and in the inactive state they have a guanosine diphosphate GDP bound to their cytoplasmic aspect. When the Gs protein is activated, it exchanges its GDP for a guanosine triphosphate GTP ; the subunit dissociates from the other two components and contacts adenylate cyclase, activating it to catalyze the transformation of cytoplasmic ATP to cAMP.
Uncoupling of the ligand from the G protein linked receptor causes GTP of the subunit to be dephosphorylated and to detach from the adenylate cyclase and rejoin its and subunits. In other cells, cAMP enters the nucleus and activates CRE-binding protein, which binds to regulatory regions of genes, known as CREs cAMP response elements , which permit the transcription of that particular gene effecting the specific response from the cell. Protein Synthetic Machinery of the Cell A major function of most cells is the synthesis of proteins either for use by the cell itself or to be exported for use elsewhere in the body.
Protein synthesis has: An intranuclear component, transcription, that is, the synthesis of a messenger RNA mRNA molecule, and Translation, the cytoplasmic component, which entails the assembly of the correct amino acid sequence, based on the nucleotide template of the mRNA to form the specific protein The cytoplasmic component of protein synthesis uses ribosomes only if the protein to be formed is released free in the cytosol or ribosomes and the rough endoplasmic reticulum RER Fig.
These in turn give rise to tertiary bronchi tertiary meaning "third" , known as segmental bronchi. The segmentary bronchi subdivide into fourth order, fifth order and sixth order segmental bronchi before dividing into the bronchioles. These are histologically distinct from the bronchi in that their walls do not have hyaline cartilage and they have club cells in their epithelial lining. The epithelium starts as a simple ciliated columnar epithelium and changes to simple ciliated cuboidal epithelium as the bronchioles decreases in size.
As stated, these bronchioles do not have hyaline cartilage to maintain their patency. Instead, they rely on elastic fibers attached to the surrounding lung tissue for support. The inner lining lamina propria of these bronchioles is thin with no glands present, and is surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle.
As the bronchioles get smaller they divide into terminal bronchioles. These bronchioles mark the end of the conducting zone , which covers the first division through the sixteenth division of the respiratory tract. Alveoli only become present when the conducting zone changes to the respiratory zone , from the sixteenth through the twenty-third division of the tract. Terminal bronchioles[ edit ] The terminal bronchiole is the most distal segment of the conducting zone.
The rehydrated sections are stained with various the microscopic morphology of the body. The sections are transferred to adhesive-coated the lower pressure lymphatic system of vessels glass slides.
Hiatt JL: Color Textbook of Histology. Table 1.
From Gartner LP. The most commonly used techniques are histochemistry and cytochemistry. The first three are dry lenses. The light from the objective lens is gathered by the ocular lens. Advanced Visualization Procedures Various techniques were developed to use the microscope in elucidating functional aspects of the cells.
Interpretation of Microscopic Sections Histologic sections are two-dimensional planes cut from a three-dimensional structure. The indirect method is more sensitive and more accurate than the direct method because more fluorescent labeled antibodies bind to the primary antibody than in the direct method.
Introduction to Histology A high-intensity lightbulb provides the light. A simple demonstration of a coiled tube sectioned at various angles Fig.
The light that passes through the specimen is gathered by one of the objective lenses that sits on a rotatable turret. By treating consecutive sections with the enzyme amylase. Fluorescent labeled antibodies were prepared against an antibody that reacts with a particular antigen. Fluorescence occurs only over the location of the labeled antibody.
When viewed with a fluorescent microscope. An antibody against an antigen was labeled with a fluorescent dye and viewed with a fluorescent microscope. As the electron interacts with the specimen. Backscatter and secondary electrons are captured by electron detectors and are interpreted as a three-dimensional image that is projected onto a monitor.
The digitized image can be saved as a file and printed as a photograph. TEM see Fig.
Each emitted light represents only a single point on the specimen being scanned. To achieve this. Electron Microscopy Electron microscopes use a beam of electrons instead of photons as their light source. In this fashion. As the electron beam bombards the surface of the specimen. The photographic plate can be developed in the normal fashion.
The image can be captured by placing an electron-sensitive photographic plate in the place of the phosphorescent plate. Viewed with the electron microscope. During freeze fracture. The arrangement of the phospholipid molecules is such that: Regions of the membrane are slightly thickened because they possess a rich concentration of glycosphingolipids and cholesterol surrounding a cluster of membrane proteins.
Integral proteins are: Although there are more than facing phospholipid sheets inner and outer types of cells that constitute these leaflets project toward the center of Key Words organisms. Cell Membrane Plasmalemma.
These specialized regions. In the average membrane. The movements of these proteins are restricted.
Outer leaflet E-face Figure 2. Cell Signaling Cells communicate with each other by releasing small molecules signaling molecules. Frequently the roles of these cells may be reversed because often the communication is bidirectional. The cell that releases the signaling molecule is the signaling cell.. The transport may be of one molecule or ion in a single direction uniport. Various mechanisms control the opening of these gated channels.
If the receptor is intracellular or intranuclear. Membrane transport proteins are of two types: This process. Some ligand-gated channels respond to neurotransmitters and are known as neurotransmitter-gated channels e.
The cell with the receptor is the target cell. G protein— linked receptors.
They also differ from ion channels because they have internal binding sites for the ions or molecules that they are designed to transfer. The receptors may be located on the cell membrane.
Ions and small polar molecules require assistance. Cystinuria manifests between age 10 and 30 years. Passive transport that does not require the input of energy. Active transport is an energyrequiring mechanism.
Some individuals who inherited two copies of the same mutation. Diagnosis is made on the basis of microscopic examination of the urine showing the presence of cystine crystals and by urinalysis showing abnormal levels of cystine.
The condition can be very painful. These individuals have a high enough concentration of this amino acid in their urine to form cystine stones. When the signaling molecule binds to the extracytoplasmic moiety of the receptor.
There are several types of G proteins: The cisternal aspect of the RER membrane houses the enzyme signal peptidase and dolichol phosphate. Although the former is not involved in protein synthesis. Protein synthesis has: It is composed of flattened. The SER functions in lipid and steroid synthesis. The large subunit binds to the small subunit and has special rRNA that acts as an enzyme. The cisterna of the RER is continuous with the perinuclear cistern of the nuclear envelope. The small subunit has binding sites for mRNA and three additional binding sites: They are usually inactive.
Protein Synthetic Machinery of the Cell A major function of most cells is the synthesis of proteins either for use by the cell itself or to be exported for use elsewhere in the body. The RER possesses the integral proteins signal recognition particle receptor docking protein. Each subunit. The process of translation is finished when the stop codon is reached. When in the cytoplasm. A large ribosomal subunit joins the complex. Synthesis of Nonpackaged Proteins Cytoplasm The synthesis of proteins that are not to be packaged occurs in the following manner Fig.
The last empty tRNA is released at the E-site. As the binding occurs. If the protein is to be packaged. The nascent protein enters the RER lumen through the pore.
The tRNA at the E-site is ejected. A new acylated tRNA possessing the correct anticodon occupies the now vacant A-site. SRP binds to the signal peptide. A single mRNA strand with several ribosomes is referred to as a polysome. The methionine is released by the tRNA located on the P-site. It picks up the two amino acids from the t-RNA at the P-site and now has three amino acids attached to it. The empty bearing an amino acid. Chapter A-site P-site E-site Amino acid.
A peptide bond is formed. During low oxygen tension. The cycle of adding to the forming protein chain continues. The polypeptide chain is released. These defective red blood cells are prone to fragmentation because they lose their normal pliability. An example of such a deleterious point mutation occurs in hemoglobin. As a new the end of the polypeptide aminoacyl-tRNA bearing an chain.
Polypeptide chain Termination signal complex The terminal signal complex. A peptide bond is formed between the two amino acids. A minor alteration of the primary structure usually does not affect the functionality of the protein. Once protein synthesis is completed.
Figure 2. This bond formation brings the acceptor end of the A-site tRNA into the P-site as it picks up the peptidyl chain.
The proteins are passed to the various faces of the Golgi apparatus— again probably via COP I—coated vesicles—where they are modified in each face and sent to the TGN for final packaging. Proteins leave the transitional ER. As the coated vesicle reaches the membrane of its target organelle. There are three major types of proteinaceous coats with some subtypes that cells use to accomplish these goals: The initial docking of the vesicle is mediated in part by the Rabs protein.
SNAREs allow binding only of the correct vesicle with the intended target. Each coat is used to encourage a specific type of transport Fig. The modified proteins are packaged in clathrin-coated vesicles or COP II—coated vesicles and are addressed to be sent to one of three places: Protein Trafficking Vesicles ferrying material e. At the cell membrane. All of these protein-ferrying vesicles not only possess protein coats. Transport vesicles possess a protein coat known as coated vesicles on their cytosolic aspect that permits the vesicle to bud off and adhere to these organelles and to reach the proper target.
The ability of the vesicle and the target membrane to recognize each other depends on SNARE proteins soluble attachment receptor N- ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion proteins and a group of GTPases specializing in target recognition known as Rabs. The vesicles also possess markers that act as address labels. A cell may have one to several Golgi complexes. The delivered cargo is examined. This organelle also participates in lipid biosynthesis. Proteasomes Proteasomes are small.
This continuous cycling of the membranes is known as membrane trafficking Fig. Peroxisomes Peroxisomes are similar to lysosomes in morphology. The ubiquitin molecules and their degradation byproducts are released in an energy-requiring process into the cytosol. Phagosomes and Pinocytotic Vesicles The transfer of material from the extracellular space into the cytoplasm is known as endocytosis.
Lysosomes Endolysosomes Lysosomes are small. Endosomes Endosomal Compartment Pinocytotic vesicles lose their clathrin coat and fuse with the: The disease is due to the inability of peroxisomes to incorporate peroxisomal enzymes because the requisite peroxisomal targeting signal receptors are missing from the membrane of the peroxisomes. Cytoplasm Clathrincoated pit 2.
The heat is used to bring the animal out of hibernation. The electron is passed along the chain. Some of the ATP formed is used by the mitochondria. The movement of protons down the rotor component of the ATP synthase causes it to rotate and rub against the stator. There are two spaces formed by the two membranes Fig. F0 and F1.
These reduced compounds accept high-energy electrons generated by the citric acid cycle and transfer them to a series of inner membrane integral proteins. Each mitochondrion is composed of a: Thermogenins have the ability to shunt protons from the intermembrane space into the matrix. The mean life span of a mitochondrion is about 10 days. The F1 portion possesses a fixed outer sleeve and a freely movable inner sleeve composed of 10 to 14 subunits. The inner membrane is also rich in the enzyme complex ATP synthase.
Brown fat is especially abundant in animals that hibernate. The fixed outer sleeves are connected to the F0 portion. The shaft also has a movable internal sleeve that extends into the F0 portion and a fixed outer sleeve. The content of the intermembrane space is very similar to the content of the cytosol.
The matrix contains the enzymes. The mitochondria of these lipocytes possess thermogenins instead of ATP synthase. Three-dimensional view of a mitochondrion with shelflike cristae. Diagram of shelflike cristae at a higher magnification. There are no known treatments for these diseases.
The prognosis depends on the muscle groups involved. The disorder usually manifests by the end of the second decade of life. Myopathy may be evidenced only as muscle weakness and tiring after exercise. Diagram of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Common myopathies are Kearns-Sayre syndrome. These infrequently occurring myopathies do not have a gender-related disposition.
The major inclusions are glycogen. The tubulin dimers are arranged in such a fashion that they form GTP-mediated linear assemblies known as protofilaments. This framework not only functions in maintaining the morphologic integrity of the cell. It may be observed that microtubules have a specific polarity. Microtubules can become longer—a process known as rescue—or shorter—a process known as catastrophe—and this cyclic activity is referred to as dynamic instability.
Melanin also assists the retina in its function of sight. Microtubules sustain cell morphology. Centrioles form the centrosome and. They also form the basal bodies that direct the development of cilia and flagella. During the S-phase of the cell cycle. Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton. The plus end is also stabilized by a removable cap that consists of specific microtubule-associated proteins MAPs.
Another pigment. The cytoskeleton assists in the creation of compartments within the cell that localize intracellular enzyme systems so that specific biochemical reactions have a greater possibility of occurring. Each microtubule has a growing. Thin filament. Individuals who are unable to manufacture melanin. The lack or malfunction of one of the enzymes responsible for the degradation is responsible for these disorders. Intermediate filament. These individuals have a condition known as vitiligo.
This individuals have albinism. Individuals who produce more than the normal amount of melanin have darker than normal skin and exhibit scalelike patches of dark coloration. These individuals have a condition known as lamellar ichthyosis.
Still other individuals may not possess melanocytes. There are three classifications of this disease: There are about 40 categories of intermediate filaments depending on their polypeptide components and cellular distribution. The best known of these binding proteins are filaggrin.
Gelsolin has an additional role of cutting a thin filament in two and capping the severed ends. The principal classes of intermediate filaments are keratins. Thin filaments form associations with each other that have been categorized into contractile bundles. Similar to microtubules. Lengthening of thin filaments requires the presence of a pool of G-actin monomers.
These monomers are sequestered by thymosin within the cytosol. Two protofilaments aggregate to form protofibrils. Intermediate filaments Fig. Actin also participates in the establishment and maintenance of focal contacts of the cell whereby the cell attaches to the extracellular matrix.
The lengthening of the filament occurs at a faster pace at the plus end. Intermediate filament binding proteins attach to and bind intermediate filaments to assist in the formation of the three-dimensional cytoskeleton.
Cytoplasm 6 nm C Chapter 25 nm Cross section This intermediate filaments. Other proteins associated with the and the inner nuclear membrane. Material cytoplasmic filament composed of a Ran-binding is exchanged between the cytoplasm and the nucleus protein GTP-binding protein that assists in at these nuclear pores Fig.
The nuclear lamina assists thesis. The transporter probably represites for nuclear RNAs and chromosomes. Nuclear Envelope and nuclear ring. Glycoprothe distal portion of the nuclear basket. These lamins not only probably a gated channel that restricts passive organize and support the perinuclear chromatin diffusion.
Transport of protein subunits of ribosomes into the nucleus is an example of importin function. Chromosomes As the cell prepares to undergo mitosis or meiosis. Chromatin The genetic material DNA of the cell resides in the nucleus as an integral part of the chromosomes.
GTPase-activating protein. Hydrogen bonds formed between facing complementary bases attach the two strands to each other to form the double helix. More recent evidence indicates that these intronic RNA segments may perform regulatory functions in conjunction with regulatory proteins.
There are three different RNAs. An additional difference is that one of the pyrimidine bases is uracil rather than thymine. Transcription Cofactors assist the enzyme. Other processing is in effect during the splicing. Modified from Alberts B. Bray D.
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Nucleus DNA template strand. Garland Publishing. New York. Lewis J. The nucleolus presents four discernible regions: Each nucleus contains a single nucleolus. Their function is not understood. The nuclear matrix may be subdivided into different interacting compartments that enable the regulation of specific gene expression at particular moments of time. A nucleoplasmic reticulum has been discovered more recently in the nuclear matrix that appears to be continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum of the cytoplasm and is believed to store calcium that is used within the nucleus.
Complexes of small RNAs and proteins. Nucleolus The nucleolus. Nuclear Matrix Structurally. A group of proteins known as cyclins. S synthetic phase. At the conclusion of mitosis. This process activates the release of a cascade of cytoplasmic protein kinases triggering a series of nuclear transcription factors regulating the expression of proto-oncogenes that result in cell division. At each checkpoint. Many cancers are the result of mutations in the proto-oncogenes that permit the uncontrolled proliferation of the mutated cell.
Interphase Interphase is subdivided into three phases: G1 gap phase. Cyclin B binds to CDK1. These three complexes. The four classes of cyclins and the CDKs with which they complex are as follows: Cyclin D. The cell cycle is usually described as beginning at the end of cell division when the cell is entering interphase Fig.
When the functions of the cyclins have been completed. At this point. These checkpoints are the: The interval between the end of DNA synthesis and the beginning of mitosis is known as the gap 2 phase. Events such as mechanical forces. There are three principal checkpoints where the control system can prevent the cell from entering or continuing the cell cycle.
The S phase is the synthetic phase where the genome is duplicated. Nondividing cells such as neurons exit the cell cycle to enter the G0 phase resting phase. Other cells such as lymphocytes may return to the cell cycle. Vincristine disrupts the mitotic spindle arresting the cell in mitosis.
Certain drugs can be employed at specific times to arrest cell proliferation by disrupting certain stages of the cell cycle. The chromosomes continue to condense and are randomly oriented within the cytoplasm. This mitotic spindle apparatus is responsible for directing the sister chromatids in their migration to the opposing poles of the nucleus. Each half of the centrosome has a centriole and a microtubule organizing center MOC. The mitotic spindle apparatus becomes defined by microtubules attached to the kinetochores.
The chromosomes seem to play a passive role in the process of migration to the opposite poles of the cell. As the chromosomes. The chromosomes begin to uncoil. Although the process of mitosis is a continuous one.
The depolymerization of the mitotic spindle microtubules in association with dynein is the responsible agent in the chromosome migration. The first event in this process is called karyokinesis.
The former function in directing the chromosomes to their proper orientation. During the latter part of anaphase. Nucleus Cytokinesis.
Individuals with this condition exhibit stubby hands. When present in a cell. Examples of cancer cells arising from oncogenes include bladder cancer and acute myelogenous leukemia.
They exhibit the male phenotype. Oncogenes are mutated forms of normal genes called proto-oncogenes. These individuals are males but possess an extra X chromosome XXY.
Klinefelter syndrome is an example of aneuploidy of the sex chromosomes. Turner syndrome XO is an example. Proto-oncogenes exhibit four regulatory mechanisms of cell growth. Individuals possessing less than the normal number of chromosomes exhibit monosomy. These individuals are mentally retarded females exhibiting undeveloped ovaries and breasts and a small uterus. Oncogenes may result from a viral infection or random genetic accidents. An example of this condition is in Down syndrome.
Most cells kill themselves in a genetically determined manner. Chromosomes begin condensing. These events are followed by the cell remnants becoming membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies that are phagocytosed by macrophages. During apoptosis.
As the chromosomes condense maximally. Meiosis I Reductional Division During the cell cycle preceding meiosis. The intrinsic pathway of apoptosis is initiated by mitochondria that release cytochrome c into the cytosol. Each cell possesses the inactive form. Homologous chromosomes continue to condense.
Homologous chromosomes align in gene-to-gene register to form synaptonemal complexes. In males. Homologous chromosomes align in random order on the equatorial plate. When the chromosomes reach the opposing poles. DNA in the germ cells is doubled to 4n in the S phase. The equatorial division is not preceded by another S phase. Meiosis— divided into two separate events. This molecule binds with apoptotic procaspase-activating adaptor protein Apaf1.
Because the extrinsic pathway is unable to generate a sufficient caspase cascade by itself. Apoptosis When cells die because they no longer receive nutrients or are exposed to sudden trauma. Homologous chromosomes. The process of apoptosis is regulated by caspases. Telophase I of meiosis I is similar to telophase of mitosis. Chromosomes continue to condense. Meiosis II resembles mitosis and is subdivided into prophase II.
Kinetochore microtubules attach to the kinetochores. Signals external to the cell activate membrane bound death receptors. Some cells undergo apoptosis because of specific environmental conditions. In females. The daughter cells now enter meiosis II. A microtubule spindle begins to form. Chromosomes complete the migration to opposite poles. Figure 3. The chromosomes have formed two groups. Metaphase II The chromosomes then migrate to the equator.
Anaphase II The newly separated chromosomes of the two daughter cells move to opposite poles of their spindle.
At normal fertilization. Chromosomes arrange themselves on the equator of the spindle. Down syndrome is an example of trisomy Nondisjunction occurs more frequently in women older than 35 years of age. Chapter Prophase I Chromosomes that have been replicated condense and pair with homologues to form tetrads.
Anaphase I Telophase I Homologous chromosomes separate and migrate to opposite poles of the cell. Telophase II The cells constrict across the nuclear membrane. The cell begins to constrict across the middle. Nondisjunction occurs more frequently in chromosomes 8. Separates into two daughter cells. Meiosis I. Four haploid nuclei are formed. Prophase II The chromosomes of the two daughter cells condense again in preparation for a second meiotic division.
A single hyaluronic same fluid returns waste products. These macromolecules vary in composition and Ground Substance in size: A proteoglycan resembles a bottlebrush. The four tissues of they tend to be very closely the mammalian body are epithelium.